Some scholars argue that strong socioeconomic factors such as the dowry system in India and the one child policy of China are responsible for prenatal sex-selection. Gender imbalance may result in the threat of social unrest, especially in the case of an excess of low-status young males unable to find spouses,  and being recruited into the service of militaristic political factions. Moreover, these scientists claim that the trends they found in Finland are similar to those observed in other countries with worse pollution and much greater pesticide use. Some researchers have in part attributed the high male to female sex ratios reported in mainland China in the last 25 years to the underreporting of the births of female children after the implementation of the one-child policy , though alternative explanations are now generally more widely accepted, including above all the use of ultrasound technology and sex-selective abortion of female fetuses and, probably to a more limited degree, neglect or in some cases infanticide of females. And so we now live through the looking glass, waiting for the next philosophically incoherent ruling from our masters of time and space. Reported sex ratios at birth, outside the typical range of 1. Human sex at birth was also analyzed and used as an example by Jacob Bernoulli Ars Conjectandi , where an unequal sex ratio is a natural example of a Bernoulli trial with uneven odds. They analyzed the sex ratio of births from the files of Statistics Finland and all live births in Finland from to In the aggregated results of 56 Demographic and Health Surveys  in African countries, the ratio is 1.
For example, James suggested  that Ein-Mor results are based on some demographic variables and a small data set, a broader study of variables and larger population set suggests human sex ratio shows substantial variation for various reasons and different trend effects of length of gestation than those reported by Ein-Mor. Second, there is pressure for women to give birth to sons, often because of cultural preferences for male heirs. On occasion, regions with a high male-low female sex ratio, like Alaska, have shown a correlation with a higher rate of reported rape. Gender imbalance in Bahrain caused by policies that restrict female spouses and children of immigrant workers Gender imbalance[ edit ] Gender imbalance is a disparity between males and females in a population. This is what happens when a society loses its moral moorings. It has been proposed that these environmental factors also explain sex differences in mortality. This increase in out-of-wedlock births was attributed to a change in the marriage market caused by the decline in the sex ratio. Also, higher incidence of Hepatitis B virus in populations is believed to increase the male to female sex ratio, while some unexplained environmental health hazards are thought to have the opposite effect. Some of the factors suggested as causes of the gender imbalance are warfare excess of females, notably in the wake of WWI in western Europe, and WWII , particularly in the Soviet Union ; sex-selective abortion and infanticide excess of males, notably in China as a result of the one-child policy , or in India ; and large-scale migration, such as that by male labourers unable to bring their families with them as in Qatar and other Gulf countries . However, they report a significant effect of paternal age. Fisher's principle Fisher's principle is an explanation of why the sex ratio of most species is approximately 1: This assumption has been questioned by some scholars. The relationship between natural factors and human sex ratio at birth, and with aging, remains an active area of scientific research. Qatar has the highest male ratio, with 2. Some studies have found that certain kinds of environmental pollution , in particular dioxins leads to higher rates of female births. Analyses of how sex ratio imbalances affect personal consumption and intra-household distribution were pioneered by Gary Becker , Shoshana Grossbard-Shechtman ,   and Marcia Guttentag and Paul Secord. This effect may be caused by emigration and higher male mortality as result of higher Soviet era deaths; it may also be related to the enormous by western standards rate of alcoholism in the former Soviet states. Catalano notes that these trends may be related to the observed trend of elevated incidences of very low birth weight from maternal stress, during certain macroeconomic circumstances. Some scholars argue that strong socioeconomic factors such as the dowry system in India and the one child policy of China are responsible for prenatal sex-selection. Reported sex ratios at birth, outside the typical range of 1. None of the natural factors such as paternal age, maternal age, age difference of parents, birth order could explain the time trends. If this happens consistently in your school, the school has violated Title IX. Furthermore, the theory suggests that East German birth sex ratios should generally be lower than the observed sex ratio in West Germany for the same years, over time. Remarkably, the trends in human sex ratio are not consistent across countries at a given time, or over time for a given country. They found an increase in the proportion of males from to ; this was followed by a decrease and interrupted by peaks in births of males during and after World War I and World War II. In economically developed countries, as well as developing countries, these scientific studies have found that the human sex ratio at birth has historically varied between 0. Essentially he argues that the 1:
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