The following metaphors of spatial orientation show the way they have been created: Such maxim generalization was spontaneously produced by Prof. It can be illustrated with the following metaphors: One and the same mental space can be expressed by means of one or several conceptual metaphors. Johnson develop the thesis for experience. The proposed approach to Language as Information System is developed in the second part of the paper. The conceptual schemes frames people work with, have a concrete nature of their own and they often turn into generalizations focused on some perceptional characteristics of the respective subject of speech, which lead to associations by analogy with other perceptional standards that we already know from experience. Cognitive metaphors in media discourse are used as indicators of mythos. The conceptual system of the individual, the terms with which one thinks and functions, is fundamentally metaphorical in its core.
The verbal discourse of argument is discussed by means of myth indicators in mass media through mental transformations images of war, attack, stroke, battle, scandal, kicking up and other similar attributes of military operations. The following metaphors of spatial orientation show the way they have been created: Cognitive metaphors usually refer to complex mental spaces to the areas of sense and social experience. The proposed approach to Language as Information System is developed in the second part of the paper. Cognitive metaphors as concept of linguistics Cognitive metaphors are notions of the holistic cognitive linguistics. In the processes of cognition these complex generally unobserved mental spaces refer by means of metaphors to simpler or precisely observed mental spaces. Thus in the examples mentioned above, the overall idea of the abstract matter of language has been conceptualized by means of definite, elementary notions of a container, in which a certain meaning is implied by the speaker. Linguistics in the Morning Calm, Vol. It is obvious from the example, that the metaphor is a natural linguistic image, which is based on the relation of analogy between terms connected with the personal sphere of the individual for ex. Cognitive metaphors are such contributive metaphors which are based on certain analogy. Language, Thought and Culture, Ch. This cognitive process of conceptualization of the new-acquired knowledge is grounded on the mechanisms of mastering the changing world around and one of the basic forms of that conceptualization, as a result of the language production, are cognitive metaphors. Cognitive metaphors make explicit the productive way of thinking mental model of the mediator of the information regarding the image of the world model of the world. It comes as a result of the individual experience in the process of mastering the world by conceptualizing the knowledge mental model of the world in language. One and the same mental space can be expressed by means of one or several conceptual metaphors. These linguistic means are discussed as unalterable and inseparable constituents of every day language, where they are produced unconsciously. In German press in the image of the Bulgarian was focused by the metaphorical headline: Can, for example, statives be characterized by the aspectual change-of-state property of dynamic domains? Iconicity means the degree of similarity between the icon and its referent. Consequently, iconicity is a sense image Gestalt, frame implied in language. They function as indicators of the qualities of the material objects and abstract categories. What is the extent of the inter-set mapping that the system permits? Structural metaphors conceptualize separate areas by transferring mental structures from other areas on them. Metaphors we live by. Cognitive metaphors provide the possibility to be discussed in terms of localization, categorization and quantification of abstract and concrete entities of patterns of familiar from experience , physical objects and substances. In the first part of this paper, it is shown that in Russian, the Instrumental case marking on the secondary predicate implies a choice-of-state operation.
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