For another excellent discussion of contemporary criticisms of hierarchies and possible responses see D. It calls for crowdsourced intellectual rigor and peer review. In addition, the mind stretching investigations of the Big Bang are now pushing knowledge back to the absolute temporal limit dictated by Planck's constant, which is the first rd of a second. Likewise, the noosphere the realm of sentient life emerges from and is not simply in the biosphere. This proved particularly problematic since these thinkers tended to confuse differentiation and dissociation.
The eco camp on the other hand felt, quite reasonably, that this paradigm of knowledge left the subject split from and alien, monochromatic world. There are higher levels of development and complexity, people of greater skills and talents, but that does not mean they are morally superior or more complete expressions of reality or that lower levels on the hierarchy should not be honored. The problem with the cruder forms of the ego camp was their over-emphasis on the right-hand empirical representation of knowledge which focuses on surfaces, ignores interiority, and avoids dimensions of meaning, value and purpose. The eco camp, however, sought freedom from excessive objectivity, autonomy and instrumentality. At first glance this move seems very neat, organic and egalitarian. Many spiritual leaders who claimed to have rid themselves of ego, it turns out, merely repress it. Wilber also showed me that a brilliant mind does not necessarily make a brilliant leader. Individuals could thus draw inspiration from either philosophy or mythology or both according to their interests, capacities and development. Consequently this is more an overview than a detailed critical review. The Platonic integration of ascent and descent was continued by Plotinus, in whom, according to St. Now the question of the good life was whether to seek either autonomous agency of the rational ego generating its own morals and aspirations separate from the brute drives of nature, or on the other hand to seek communion with the natural world by connecting and communing with nature including its vital, sensual and sexual elements. By contrast, Asian idealists such as Shankara and Yogacara Buddhists offered both an art of transcendence by which practitioners could glimpse and then stabilize an experience of the nondual, and idealistic philosophies that have endured over centuries to articulate the insights that emerge. Materialistic explanations have a very hard time accounting for this, so the Big Bang has changed many reflective people into philosophical idealists. The process of ascent, according to Plato, is driven by eros, the drive to find greater and greater unions. The net result of these cosmological and evolutionary discoveries is that many philosophers of science now acknowledge some sort of self-transcendent drive in evolution. These two can be seen as totally unrelated, as the ego and eco camps had tended to do, but these two "apparent absolutes" are synthesized in the third great movement of Spirit. The scope of the work is extraordinary. Using the concepts of hierarchy and holons, Wilber is able to clarify the nature of various hierarchies and their misuse. For instance, nuclear science is a higher form of human understanding than voodoo magic or religious dogma, but Wilber argues that this does not mean one should be imposed onto the other. It also allows him to draw some chilling conclusions about the possible nonegalitarian and gender divisive effects of new information technologies which are currently so male dominated. Because Wilber maintained they had genuinely reached the farthest limits of human awareness and understanding. According to Wilber, the non-rational stages of consciousness what Wilber calls "pre-rational" and "trans-rational" stages can be easily confused with one another. A particularly unfortunate result can be the assumption that higher stage realizations free one from concern with the world. This is not because the book is obtuse or badly written. He also describes an approach, called vision-logic , which he finds qualified to succeed modernism. At the causal level all form and experiences drop away leaving only pure consciousness, such as the Buddhist's nirvana, the Vedantin's nirvikalpa samadhi, the Gnostic's abyss.
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The Five Elements of AQAL
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