The IRB specifically waived the need for consent of participants, as this was a retrospective study. Low frequency LF band LF power in the range of 0. Most patients were referred because of primary complaints of poor nocturnal sleep, daytime sleepiness, morning headache, or other symptoms suggesting a sleep related breathing disorder. Inclusion criteria for control patients were 1 five or fewer scoreable respiratory events i. Fifteen idiopathic and obesity related-SRAH patients were studied. WASO and the awakening index were higher in OSA patients, although the differences were not statistically significant. The text files containing the sleep data were converted into a Spike2 data file S2R using Spike2 version 6.
An understanding of the changes in HRV during sleep in patients with SRAH may offer insights into the physiopathology of the autonomic nervous system disruption seen in patients with sleep related breathing disorders. Low frequency LF band LF power in the range of 0. PSG studies were performed using Lamont amplifiers, 20 bit, 32 channels, and dedicated inputs for electroencephalogram, tibial and chin electromyogram, oronasal flow, respiratory effort, oxymetry, heart rate, and body position. Patients with SRAH exhibited an abnormal cardiac tone during sleep. According to the hypothesis previously mentioned, our aim in this study was to evaluate nocturnal autonomic cardiovascular function in patients with SRAH using frequency- and time-domain HRV analysis during 1-night polysomnography PSG and compare it with that of patients with OSA and control patients. HRV reflects the relationship between the parasympathetic nervous system PNS and the sympathetic nervous system SNS , and it has been reported to be a good predictor for future cardiovascular disease. The effect of sleep on the HRV variables across sleep stages and within the same sleep stage among the three groups was calculated by using analysis of variance ANOVA , with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, and the interaction where appropriate. Most patients were referred because of primary complaints of poor nocturnal sleep, daytime sleepiness, morning headache, or other symptoms suggesting a sleep related breathing disorder. Patients were either referred to the Sleep Unit from other departments within the University Clinic of Navarra neurology, pulmonology, endocrinology, ear, nose, and throat, etc. The following HRV measures were computed in the time and frequency domain based on the measurement standards All groups had similar age, BMI, and tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine intake levels. All statistical tests were performed using SPSS version The sleep segments were saved as text files from their digital recording in Stellate Reviewer Version 6 Stellate Inc. We quantified HRV power in four frequency bands that have been associated with different physiologic rhythms 4: Inclusion criteria for patients with OSA were 1 five or more scoreable respiratory events i. Sleep characteristics of all groups are summarized in Table 2. The text files containing the sleep data were converted into a Spike2 data file S2R using Spike2 version 6. Before PSG studies, all patients completed a questionnaire to document clinically relevant data including current medications, current medical problems, alcohol, tobacco, and recreational drugs consumption, Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, height, and weight. The magnitude of obesity and SRAH is not sufficiently correlated to predict what will occur during sleep in individual patients. This fact appears to be related to the severity of nocturnal oxygen desaturation. When HRV is analyzed, patients with OSA exhibit increased sympathetic activity and decreased parasympathetic activity. Across sleep stages, no significant differences were observed in W-pre, W-post, and N3 stages. Data were made anonymous by removal of direct identifiers from the data file a variable was removed when it was highly identifying such as name, surname, or place of birth; other variables irrelevant for analyses were also removed. Fifteen idiopathic and obesity related-SRAH patients were studied. For further details, see Table S1 in the supplemental material. Moreover, there were no differences between OSA and SRAH, supporting the hypothesis that autonomic changes in OSA are primarily related to a reduced nocturnal oxygen saturation, rather than a consequence of other factors such as nocturnal respiratory events. Hypoxemia may also give rise to arrhythmia during sleep.
Video about studies on parasympathetic and sex:
Parasympathetic Nervous System: Crash Course A&P #15
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